April 12 is known to all of us, as the Day of cosmonautics . On this day we celebrate the memorable date – the first successful manned flight into space . In 1961 on this day the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Board the spaceship “Vostok-1” was launched from the cosmodrome “Baikonur” and made an orbital flight . lasted 108 minutes . This was a major breakthrough in the history of space exploration. But the space also had its history . and humanity had a long way to go to finally “reach for the stars”. This will be discussed in this article.
The idea of space flight appeared almost immediately after the emergence of the heliocentric system of the world and the understanding that other Earth-like planets can somehow be reached. The first published description of human presence on the moon was a fantastic story of Kepler’s “Somnium”(1634) .
First the theoretical foundations of cosmonautics was laid by Isaac Newton in his work ” Mathematical principles of natural philosophy “( 1687 year). Later important contribution to the theory of calculation of the motion of bodies in outer space were made by Euler and Lagrange. Continue reading
Jupiter (the astrological sign G) is a planet, average distance from Sun 5.2 a. E. (778,3 million km), the sidereal orbital period of 11.9 years period of rotation (cloud layer near the equator) approx. 10 h, equivalent to the approx. diameter of 142 800 km, the mass of 1.90·1027 kg, atmospheric Composition: H2, CH4, NH3, He.
Jupiter is a powerful source of thermal radiation has a radiation belt and an extensive magnetosphere. Jupiter has 16 satellites (Adrastea, Metis, Amalthea, Phoebe, IO, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, ELARA, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae, Sinope), and the ring is approx. 6 thousand km, almost directly adjacent to the planet.
Jupiter, fifth from the Sun largest planet in the Solar system, the largest of giant planets.
Jupiter moves around the Sun in nearly circular elliptical orbit, whose plane is inclined to the Ecliptic plane at an angle of 1°18,3′. The minimum distance of Jupiter from the Sun 4.95 a. E. a maximum of 5.45. E. average – 5.2 a. E. (1 and. E. = 149.6 million km).
The equator is tilted to the orbital plane at an angle of 3°5′; because of the smallness of this angle seasonal variations on Jupiter is expressed very weakly. Continue reading
The dust and ion tails of comet Hale-BOPP
But, in spite of research that freedom from prejudice was very slow: for example, Louis XIV was afraid of the comet of 1680 year, because it’s considered a portent of his death. The greatest contribution to the study of the true nature of comets was made by Edmond Halley. His main discovery was the establishment of the frequency of appearance of the same comet in 1531, 1607, 1682 Passionate about astronomical research, Halley became interested in the movement of the 1682 comet and calculate its orbit. He was interested in the path of its movement, and since Newton had already conducted similar calculations, Halley turned to him. The scientist immediately gave the answer: the comet will move in an elliptical orbit. At the request of Halley Newton presented his calculations and theorems in the treatise “De Motu”, that is “On the move”. Having the assistance of a Newton, he was engaged in calculation of cometary orbits by astronomical observations. He managed to collect information about the 24 comets. Thus appeared the first catalog of cometary orbits. In its catalog Halley found that three comets are very similar in their characteristics, from which he concluded that it’s not three different comets, and the periodic appearance of the same comet. The period of its occurrence was equal to 75.5 years. She was subsequently named Halley’s comet. Continue reading