earth

The history cosmonautics

April 12 is known to all of us, as the Day of cosmonautics . On this day we celebrate the memorable date – the first successful manned flight into space . In 1961 on this day the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Board the spaceship “Vostok-1” was launched from the cosmodrome “Baikonur” and made an orbital flight . lasted 108 minutes . This was a major breakthrough in the history of space exploration. But the space also had its history . and humanity had a long way to go to finally “reach for the stars”. This will be discussed in this article.

The idea of space flight appeared almost immediately after the emergence of the heliocentric system of the world and the understanding that other Earth-like planets can somehow be reached. The first published description of human presence on the moon was a fantastic story of Kepler’s “Somnium”(1634) .

First the theoretical foundations of cosmonautics was laid by Isaac Newton in his work ” Mathematical principles of natural philosophy “( 1687 year). Later important contribution to the theory of calculation of the motion of bodies in outer space were made by Euler and Lagrange. Continue reading

The world day of aviation and cosmonautics

The history of the holiday

There are achievements that humanity can be proud of. The conquest of space, no doubt, belongs to them. 12 April 1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin made the first orbit around the Earth. In 1962, the first anniversary of manned flight into space, was signed a government decree about establishment in the USSR of a new holiday, cosmonautics Day.

Of course, the conquest of space is a celebration of not only national, but international significance. So 7 years later, in 1968, the General conference of the international aeronautical Federation on the initiative of the USSR adopted a decision to establish the world day of aviation and cosmonautics, which is widely celebrated on April 12 in many European countries and the USA.

April 12 – date at all unique to the history of space exploration. On this day, in 1981, made its first manned flight of the American Shuttle “Shuttle”.

World day of cosmonautics in our days

In Russia’s cosmonautics Day celebrated on April 12 in accordance with the decree of 13 March 1995. Continue reading

The Planet Jupiter

Jupiter (the astrological sign G) is a planet, average distance from Sun 5.2 a. E. (778,3 million km), the sidereal orbital period of 11.9 years period of rotation (cloud layer near the equator) approx. 10 h, equivalent to the approx. diameter of 142 800 km, the mass of 1.90·1027 kg, atmospheric Composition: H2, CH4, NH3, He.

Jupiter is a powerful source of thermal radiation has a radiation belt and an extensive magnetosphere. Jupiter has 16 satellites (Adrastea, Metis, Amalthea, Phoebe, IO, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, ELARA, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae, Sinope), and the ring is approx. 6 thousand km, almost directly adjacent to the planet.

Jupiter, fifth from the Sun largest planet in the Solar system, the largest of giant planets.

Jupiter moves around the Sun in nearly circular elliptical orbit, whose plane is inclined to the Ecliptic plane at an angle of 1°18,3′. The minimum distance of Jupiter from the Sun 4.95 a. E. a maximum of 5.45. E. average – 5.2 a. E. (1 and. E. = 149.6 million km).

The equator is tilted to the orbital plane at an angle of 3°5′; because of the smallness of this angle seasonal variations on Jupiter is expressed very weakly. Continue reading

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