The largest planet in the Solar system
Equatorial diameter of Jupiter 142600 km (11 times the diameter of the earth). The period of rotation of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9h. 50min. 30C. at the equator and
9h. 55min. 40C. in the mid-latitudes. Because of the rapid rotation of this planet has strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to
318 the mass of the Earth. The rotation axis of Jupiter is almost perpendicular
to the plane of its orbit (inclination of 87 degrees). The visible surface of Jupiter is an upper level clouds surrounding the planet.
Due to this, Jupiter has a relatively high albedo(0.45 m),and the details on its surface are constantly changing their appearance. From sustainable parts known Great Red spot, observed more than 300 years.
It is a huge oval formation size 35000 km in longitude and in latitude 14000 km
between the southern tropical and southern temperate bands. Color it reddish, not subject to change.
Spectral analysis of Jupiter revealed that its atmosphere
Consists of molecular hydrogen and its compounds: methane and ammonia. In small quantities also are present ethane,
acetylene, water vapor fosfeni.
The clouds of Jupiter are composed of droplets and crystals of ammonia. In December of 1973. with the help of the American spacecraft
“Pioneer 10” was able to detect the presence of helium in Jupiter’s atmosphere and alter its content. It is possible to consider that the atmosphere of Jupiter at 74% hydrogen and 26% helium.
According to modern concepts, the sun and the planets formed from a common dust cloud. The share of Jupiter had 2/3 of the mass of the total mass of the planets of the Solar system, but it was not enough to in the center of Jupiter started thermonuclear reactions: the planet is 80 times lighter than the smallest stars of the main sequence. However, Jupiter has its own source of heat associated with radioactive decay of substances and energy released as a result of compression. If he was warmed only by the Sun, the temperature of the upper layers would be equal To 100, the same measurements give 140 K. In the thermal regime of Jupiter play an important role the flow of internal energy from the center of the planet. The planet radiates more energy than receives from the Sun.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is 89% hydrogen and 11 % helium and resembles the chemical composition of the Sun.
Its length is 6 thousand kilometers. The orange color of the atmosphere give a compound of phosphorus or sulfur. For people it is harmful because it contains toxic ammonia and acetylene.
The most famous formation on Jupiter, which see for 300 years (it was opened in 1664, – the Great Red Spot . Apparently, this long-lived atmospheric vortex 15×25 thousand km in the atmosphere of Jupiter. In the atmosphere of Jupiter also discovered a white spot the size of more than 10 thousand km
By the beginning of the third Millennium, Jupiter’s known satellites 28. Four of them are large in size and mass. They move in almost circular orbits in the Equatorial plane of the planet. 20 outer moons are so far from planets that are invisible from its surface to the naked eye, and Jupiter in the sky the most distant of them looks smaller than the moon.
IO – “heavenly eggs” – one of the first satellites of Jupiter, discovered in 1610 . On the mass and radius of the satellite is like the moon and visible in the sky of Jupiter as a bright reddish disk or Crescent. IO is equal to the diameter of 3630 km, and the satellite is Named in honor of the lover of Zeus from Greek myth, the jealous Hera transformed into a cow. On IO discovered 20 active volcanoes.