The largest planet
People were engaged in agriculture in the stone age, 30 – 35 thousand years ago. This is evidenced by the notches on animal bones and rocks, cave paintings. This is, perhaps, the earliest “scientific notes”, in which the authors noted the different phases of the moon and count days and nights.
Monitored by our astronomical instruments, the universe consists by weight of about 76 percent hydrogen and 23 helium. Only slightly more than one percent accounts for all other elements of the periodic table.
It is estimated that the galaxy contains more than a hundred and twenty billion stars and to represent its enormous size, we will give one comparison: if the path from the Sun to Earth light travels in 8 minutes, the diameter of the galaxy it will for a hundred thousand years.
To show the progress made over half a century in the study of the Universe, astronomer Paul Couderc came to a startling comparison. Suppose that all known astronomy to 1900 area of the Universe displayed on the plan area of one square meter. If we wanted to display on the same scale are known and measured by the 1950s, the space of the Universe, we would need a map, equal area of the Earth’s surface.
Scientists of Armenia found that the Central core of our nearest galaxy – the Andromeda nebula – continuously emits hot gases. 3A, it throws so much substance, how much of it contains the Sun. Meanwhile, the core is so small that details of its structure cannot be seen even in the most powerful telescope.
If to surround the whole Earth with cobweb, then this thread would weigh about 450 grams. But if to hold the web to the nearest star alpha in the constellation of Centaurus, then it would weigh 500 thousand tons.
Jupiter is the largest planet of our system. It could make 1300 balls of this size, as is our Land.
Mars has with Earth a lot in common. The inclination of their axes are almost the same, and the day of the two planets differ by only 40 minutes. On Mars there is water. Its a bit – all of it easily fit in our lake Ladoga. There is oxygen and there is not too cold and hot: 30 from minus – 40 to plus 20 – 26 degrees.
Circling around Mars two satellites, one of which manages to run it almost three times per Martian day. Their sizes are very small (only a few kilometers in diameter), and the rate of motion, shape of the orbits and proximity to Mars cause confusion, as in the solar system is not open more such satellites.
English writer Jonathan swift described the satellites of Mars – Phobos and Deimos – 150 years before their discovery. Description of swift’s true. How he managed to do it, remains a mystery.
Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system. The force of its gravity much less than Earth. On this basis, scientists have long believed that mercury, like the moon, could not restrain himself about the atmosphere and therefore should be completely devoid of gas shell. However, studies conducted recently showed that this is not so. It turned out that mercury does have an atmosphere, although it is 300 times rarefied than earth’s.
Based on the data of optical astronomy, scientists believed that mercury always faces the Sun the same party – just as the Moon is to Earth. But radar observations showed that mercury’s period of rotation around its axis is equal to 59 earth days. Meanwhile, the period of revolution around the Sun is 88 days. Therefore, the planet, albeit slowly, but turns to the Sun with all its “sides”.
The sun radiates energy through atomic fusion (transition of hydrogen into heavier helium). In this case, it loses mass. It is estimated that the Sun every second of “losing weight” for 4 million tons or 360 billion tons per day. The scientists found that “solar reserve” will be enough for tens of billions years.