The history cosmonautics
April 12 is known to all of us, as the Day of cosmonautics . On this day we celebrate the memorable date – the first successful manned flight into space . In 1961 on this day the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Board the spaceship “Vostok-1” was launched from the cosmodrome “Baikonur” and made an orbital flight . lasted 108 minutes . This was a major breakthrough in the history of space exploration. But the space also had its history . and humanity had a long way to go to finally “reach for the stars”. This will be discussed in this article.
The idea of space flight appeared almost immediately after the emergence of the heliocentric system of the world and the understanding that other Earth-like planets can somehow be reached. The first published description of human presence on the moon was a fantastic story of Kepler’s “Somnium”(1634) .
First the theoretical foundations of cosmonautics was laid by Isaac Newton in his work ” Mathematical principles of natural philosophy “( 1687 year). Later important contribution to the theory of calculation of the motion of bodies in outer space were made by Euler and Lagrange. Jules Verne’s novels about flying a man to the moon (1860 years) in detail and correctly describe the mechanism of space travel from the point of view of physics,however, and they were not truthful in the descriptions.
Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was one of the first who put forward the idea of using rockets for space flight. Rocket for interplanetary communications, he designed in 1903. It was he who calculated the famous formula named after him, which you can easily calculate what the speed should develop the missile under the action of its engine.
A little later, German scientist Hermann Oberth in the 1920s also demonstrated the principles of interplanetary flight, and American scientist Robert Goddard’s first liquid propellant rocket engine.
The work of Tsiolkovsky and Goddard oberta were continued by group of rocketry enthusiasts in the USA, the USSR and Germany. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, funds were allocated for the development of missile weapons, and in the spring of 1936 was approved by the construction program rocket center, the technical Director who was appointed von Braun . It was developed the ballistic missile A-4 with a range of 320 km and in 1944 she held her first successful run.
In the USSR at this time also conducted active work on creation of rockets. In line with this, a Second (space) management and Scientific-research artillery Institute of reactive armaments No. 4 . September 16, 1953 by the order of the design Bureau of Sergei Korolev in the NII-4 was opened the first research work on space subjects ” Research on the creation of the first artificial satellite of the Earth.” And after 4 years, October 4, 1957 in Earth orbit, the USSR launched the first artificial satellite called ” Sputnik -1 “. Under the guidance of the Queen created the world’s first Intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 . which was used to launch the first artificial Earth satellite.
In a month, was launched ” Sputnik 2 “, and on the Board first in the cosmos is a living being with the Earth – the dog Laika . but unfortunately, by that time, a system was developed return to Earth. 19 August 1960 — the first in the history of orbital space flight of living beings to successfully return to Earth . On the ship “Sputnik-5” this flight has carried the dogs Belka and Strelka . This event significantly brought human flight into space, because after feat Belka and Strelka humanity, it became clear that living beings can survive space flight. In addition, this flight showed how still affects space and overload on the living body. Therefore, in the following year, on 12 April 1961 successful orbital flight into space makes Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet pilot.
After that, the space became even more rapid development. Were made group flights in space, visited the first woman – Valentina Tereshkova . and on 18 March 1965 the first man walked in space. It was cosmonaut Alexei Leonov . In 1969 there was the first landing on the moon, which was made by American astronaut Neil Armstrong with the ship “Apollo-11”. Although many critics this flight still stands in question. February 20, 1986, brought into orbit the base module of the orbital station “Mir” . In 1990 the orbit brought the famous Hubble telescope . and in 1998 brought out the first ISS module “Zarya”.
After that, the development of space exploration has stalled, and high jumps to date, it has not been reached. Now, however, there are some large projects on space exploration. Actively developing space tourism. Manned spaceflight once again going back to the moon and turned his eyes to the other planets of the Solar system (especially Mars ).
It was a brief history of the world cosmonautics. Let’s hope that she will continue to develop for peaceful scientific purposes . and will be of interest to a growing number of people. And if you go back to the Day of cosmonautics . this holiday is celebrated in the USSR (later Russia) since 1962 . And on April 7, 2011 at the special plenary session of the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution officially proclaiming April 12 the International day of human flight into space.