New space ships of the USA and Russia
New ships Russia: Soyuz TMA-MS, Progress MS, PCA and PTK NP Rus.
New ships USA: Cygnus, Dragon, CST-100, Orion.
Existing ships of Russia: Progress M, Soyuz TMA-M.
Existing ships of the United States: no.
Signus together with Soyuz TMA-M
Soyuz TMA-MC is a Russian multi-seater spacecraft for flight in earth orbit.
New upgraded version of the spacecraft “Soyuz TMA-M”. The update will affect almost every system of manned spacecraft. The first launch is planned no earlier than 2016.
The main points of the program of modernization of the spacecraft:
the energy-conversion efficiency of solar cells, will be enhanced through the use of more efficient Photovoltaic cells;
the reliability of rendezvous and docking of spacecraft with the space station due to the change in engine installation of the mooring and orientation. The new scheme these engines will allow you to perform rendezvous and docking even in case of failure of one engine and to ensure the descent of the manned vehicle when the failure of any two engines;
the new system of communication and direction finding, which will in addition to improving the quality of radio communications, to facilitate the search of the descent module landed in any point of the globe;
the new system of rendezvous and docking “Rate-AT”;
digital television radio line;
On a modernized “Soyuz TMA-MS” will be installed sensors of the GLONASS system. At the stage of parachuting, and after landing the lander coordinates obtained on the basis of GLONASS/GPS will be transmitted by the satellite system COSPAS-SARSAT in MCC.
“Soyuz TMA-MS” will be the last modification of the “Union”. The ship will be used for manned flights until replaced by the next-generation spaceship.
Advanced manned transportation system (ppts) Rus – multi-purpose manned reusable spacecraft.
PCA, as a key element of the Russian space infrastructure, created for the following tasks:
of national security;
unhindered access of Russia into space;
flight in the polar and Equatorial orbit of the moon landing.
For the PCA adopted the modular construction of the basic vehicle in the form of functionally complete elements — the return of the device and an impellent compartment. The ship will be wingless, reusable return part of truncated-conical shape and aggregate disposable cylindrical motor compartment. The maximum crew of the new ship will be 6 people (when flying to the moon — up to 4 people), the mass delivered to orbit cargo — 500 kg, the weight of the return to Earth of cargo — 500 kg and more, with a smaller crew. The ship length — 6.1 m, maximum diameter — 4.4 m, mass in near-earth orbital flights — 12 t (for flights to the lunar orbit — 16.5 tons), mass of returned parts — to 4.23 tons (including soft landing of 7.77 tons), the Volume of the pressurized compartment is 18 m3. The duration of Autonomous flight vehicle — to-month. New structural materials based on aluminum alloys with superior strength characteristics, and carbon fiber will reduce the structural mass of the spacecraft by 20-30 % and prolong its life. Household sections are just to be stacked, depending on the task, which will be before the PCA to stand.
NASA is dependent on its partners in the ISS program. In this regard, the management of NASA decided to start work on the program “COTS” (Commercial orbital transportation). The essence of the programme is to provide private companies an inexpensive means of delivering cargo into orbit.
The Cygnus “Cygnus” private unmanned cargo transport spacecraft supply.
Dragon Dragon SpaceX – the private space transport vehicle designed for delivery of a payload and, in the future, people to the International space station.
CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation) — manned transport spacecraft developed by Boeing.
Orion, MPCV — multi-purpose reusable manned spacecraft.
The purpose of this program was to return Americans to the moon, and the ship “Orion” was designed to deliver people and cargo to the International space station (ISS) and missions to the moon, and to Mars in the future.
Currently(2013) in the space of the new ships Cygnus and Dragon, and after 2020 must begin real competition in space and we hope the beginning of the dawn of the space age of mankind.
Dragon SpaceX Dragon – and according to what he has already started to fly a very good development and a serious competitor.