Module Philae space probe Rosetta
The long-awaited event that all of us space community was ten years old, happened in 19.03 Moscow time on 12 November 2014. It is difficult to imagine the average person that the operation occurred at a distance of more than 500 million kilometers from Earth!
For the first time in the history of space exploration module “Philae” the European space Academy reached the nucleus surface of comet 67P /Churyumov-Gerasimenko and landed.
This is the first and incredibly complex operation in the history of science, when the artificial origin sat down on the comet. The difficulties were in the fact that moving a celestial body has an unusual shape. The comet is named after its discoverers – the Soviet scientists-astronomers Klim Churyumov and Svetlana Gerasimenko in 1969.
Dossier of the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko
This comet belongs to the short – period body- it rotates around the Sun at a considerable distance, and therefore has no tail, and its trajectory crosses the orbits of Jupiter and Mars. The trajectory of rotation of the comet 67P has changed, it is influenced by the proximity of Jupiter.
Scientists claim that this celestial body appeared about 4.5 billion years ago, its agreement measures approximately 3 by 5 km. the First Photographs of the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko were made in March 2003, with the help of which scientists have been able to build a three-dimensional image.
March 2, 2004 toward comet 67P was sent the spacecraft “Rosetta”. More than a dozen years, he scoured the outer space. Since June 2011, the probe “Rosetta” was in a state of hibernation mode the full energy savings. It was disabled almost every system except the onboard computer and several heaters to maintain the minimum required temperature.
How did the operation of the landing module Philae on the comet
Since January of this year, “sleeping beauty” woke up and went to the rapprochement with the comet in August 2014 turned to her companion, and on 12 November 2014, Rosetta reached the comet and on its surface was successfully launched module “Philae”.
During the separation of the probe the distance of the comet’s nucleus was about 20 km and the time of descent was about seven o’clock. The area in which the probe descended, is called “Agilika”.
Over the course of the landing was watched by scientists in the European centers of ESA. Additional complexity was assumed because of the unusual shape of the comet. During the landing, however, failed system of harpoons required for fixing on the surface of the comet. However, the landing was successful, the signal came to earth with a half-hour delay.
The mission of the research module Philae
The probe is equipped with special tools and research equipment that are intended to study the comet’s nucleus. The internal structure will be studied using radio waves, and microcamera, which is set to “Philae”, will allow you to get panoramic shots.
It is expected to conduct series of experiments to determine the chemical composition of the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and be taken soil samples using a special drill. The instrument will give the mankind a unique opportunity to look deep into the comet’s nucleus and study its tail. The value of these data is that the majority of the particles of the comet’s nucleus that enter the plume, is rapidly destroyed by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
Scientists have obtained images of the surface was photographed dark side of the comet, since the sunlight will get to it only next spring. Found that every second the comet vaporizes in the steam space, its surface covered with ice, and dusty crust.
With the help of missions “Rosetta”, scientists hope to explain the origin of our Universe, the evolution of the Solar system and the origin of water on Earth. There are also plans to examine the substance of the heavenly bodies and the influence of gases, which evaporate in the comet on surrounding celestial bodies. In addition, the researchers are seeking additional proof that the theory of extraterrestrial origin of organic matter of the Earth.
Module “FILA” will hold on the surface of the core about half a year, Rosetta will be in orbit until December of the following year, monitoring of processes occurring on the comet, which flies to the Sun.
A truly unique event and a new breakthrough in Space exploration!