Space flights cause a failure in the immune system of a person
The results of two studies of NASA, recently published in the journal journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research suggest that spaceflight may cause temporary changes in the immune system of crew members who are long time on Board the International Space Station.
Data obtained at an early stage of one of the experiments showed that the distribution of immune cells in the blood of crew members during the flight remained relatively unchanged. However, they found that some cell functions were significantly reduced, while the activity of another cell type, on the contrary, increased. That is, in a sense, the immune system of crew members, it failed.
If the cell activity is suppressed, the immune system cannot adequately react to threats, which can lead to asymptomatic for the virus. If activity is increased, the immune system becomes too sensitive, which can lead to the development of allergic reactions and persistent rashes, as well as reported some of the crew members.
In another study, scientists analyzed blood plasma, measuring the concentration of cytokines – proteins that regulate the immune system. Continue reading
Astronomer Fyodor Bredikhin was born in 1831 in the city of Nikolaev in the ancient noble family.
To 14 years Bredikhin was home-schooled – in the estate of her father Colonie near Kherson. Then was sent to boarding school at Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa, and four years later transferred to the Lyceum. However, studying in the lycée he did not like, and in 1851 he transferred to Moscow University physico-mathematical faculty.
Bredikhina was interested in physics, but, obeying the fashion of those years, he intended to follow in the footsteps of his father and uncle, that is certainly to enroll in the naval service or in the artillery. Only in the last year after practical work in the Observatory Bredikhin became interested in astronomy.
In 1862 he defended his master’s thesis “On the tails of comets”. This study as would be anticipated the main direction of its future work in astronomy.
In 1867 Professor Bredikhina was granted planning a business trip. Good knowledge of the language enabled him, while in Italy, to be familiar with the works of the Society of spectroscopy. Many Italian researchers have become his friends, including the famous discoverer of the “canals” of Mars the astronomer Schiaparelli. Continue reading
People were engaged in agriculture in the stone age, 30 – 35 thousand years ago. This is evidenced by the notches on animal bones and rocks, cave paintings. This is, perhaps, the earliest “scientific notes”, in which the authors noted the different phases of the moon and count days and nights.
Monitored by our astronomical instruments, the universe consists by weight of about 76 percent hydrogen and 23 helium. Only slightly more than one percent accounts for all other elements of the periodic table.
It is estimated that the galaxy contains more than a hundred and twenty billion stars and to represent its enormous size, we will give one comparison: if the path from the Sun to Earth light travels in 8 minutes, the diameter of the galaxy it will for a hundred thousand years.
To show the progress made over half a century in the study of the Universe, astronomer Paul Couderc came to a startling comparison. Suppose that all known astronomy to 1900 area of the Universe displayed on the plan area of one square meter. Continue reading