New ships Russia: Soyuz TMA-MS, Progress MS, PCA and PTK NP Rus.
New ships USA: Cygnus, Dragon, CST-100, Orion.
Existing ships of Russia: Progress M, Soyuz TMA-M.
Existing ships of the United States: no.
Signus together with Soyuz TMA-M
Soyuz TMA-MC is a Russian multi-seater spacecraft for flight in earth orbit.
New upgraded version of the spacecraft “Soyuz TMA-M”. The update will affect almost every system of manned spacecraft. The first launch is planned no earlier than 2016.
The main points of the program of modernization of the spacecraft:
the energy-conversion efficiency of solar cells, will be enhanced through the use of more efficient Photovoltaic cells;
the reliability of rendezvous and docking of spacecraft with the space station due to the change in engine installation of the mooring and orientation. Continue reading
Inessa Kozlovskaya of “Space flight: living in zero gravity”
“Space flight: living in zero gravity”.
Gravity existing on Earth for millions of years, has contributed to the development of all life on Earth organisms and invade their system of life as a factor contributing to their successful functioning in the gravitational field of the Earth. Opening up opportunities to systematically study the impact of eliminating gravity, spaceflight facilitated the accumulation of information and facts that contributed to the development of the theory on the role and place of gravitational mechanisms in the various body systems and the development of a new physiological science — gravitational physiology.The most gravity-dependent system of the body is the propulsion system, in which gravity has played such an important role that today we have the right to determine its evolution as the evolution of the struggle of living organisms with gravity wrestling success ended in mammals the development of a strong skeleton, strong muscular system, management systems movements, and information systems able to ensure the perfection of movement in complex conditions of the gravitational field and its izmeneny. Continue reading
Space and Humanity
History of Astronautics – 098
The history of the space a number of times when on the road to further human exploration of outer space rose up high and seemingly insurmountable barriers. In 1961 the transition to weightlessness caused in perfectly healthy astronaut a painful condition similar to motion sickness. In 1966, after a three-week flight on the satellite “Cosmos-110” slightly alive returned to Earth two dogs. In 1970 it became clear that the meeting with Earth after 18-day stay in weightlessness is very difficult for humans. So there was a barrier of reparations, and the possibility of longer flights required further justification. In 1978, after a three-month flight is in the blood of an astronaut found atypical forms of erythrocytes, which suggests the appearance of weightlessness in a new generation of abnormal formed elements. In recent years, in connection with the implementation of the 7-8 series record-month flight appeared ideas about qualitatively new changes in the condition of the body in the postflight period, although not everyone agrees specialists. Continue reading